Tag Archives: Online

Whether synchronous online course activities meet accessibility guidelines may depend on how you use them.

Man web-conferencing using an iPhone

CC-BY Public.Resource.Org on Flickr

Adding synchronous activities to your asynchronous online class can help to foster social presence and instructor immediacy. Using such tools as Google Hangouts, Skype, Zoom, etc. can add an element of interactivity and engagement to the online course that might otherwise be missing. Web-conferencing can be used to prepare students for upcoming assignments, review recent material, offer virtual office hours, and more…

but what about accessibility?

Our campus recently adopted a policy that essentially requires all online instruction meet accessibility guidelines. While our facilities department is well versed in ensuring campus physical learning spaces meet ADA requirements, faculty may struggle with how to approach accessibility within the virtual learning environment. When the disabilities office notifies an instructor that a student in their class needs further accommodation they also provide the direction and support necessary to meet the student’s needs.

Universal design vs. Accommodation

To accommodate a specific student with a disability is to retrofit instruction to meet that student’s needs. However, by applying Universal Design principles we anticipate a wide range of learners’ needs and design the instruction and learning environment accordingly.

Universal design for learning is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with differing abilities.

Employing universal design principles in instruction does not eliminate the need for specific accommodations for students with disabilities. There will always be the need for some specific accommodations, such as sign language interpreters for students who are deaf. However, applying universal design concepts in course planning will assure full access to the content for most students and minimize the need for specific accommodations. DOIT Center

So how can we go about ensuring online synchronous activities are accessible to all students regardless of ability? Part of the answer may depend on how the synchronous tools are being used.

Several web-conferencing solutions permit attendees to participate by dialing in on their phones rather than using computer VoIP. A phone connection may be used with other devices and services – such as Telecommunications Relay Services (TRS) – to translate voice to text. Also by dialing in for the web-conference rather than using the browser or app, students can avoid exceeding their data cap when they are not connected via WiFi.

When presenting to the entire class in real-time, provide links to accessible digital materials in advance for participants to review and follow along during the session. Provide detailed descriptions and annotations to go along with any images, charts and graphs used within the presentation. Take the time to describe the significance of each graphic in detail during the presentation. These practices will also help when transcribing or captioning the session for recordings after the event.

By using the chat feature provided in most web-conferencing solutions all participants can submit questions. Assign a moderator to keep track of the chat window and type in the presenter’s answers to posted questions. Whether a question is being asked by someone in the lecture hall or via chat, it is always a good idea to repeat the question before responding.

Rather than using only video and voice features, offer chat and/or text messaging as options for conferences with individual students. Be sure the information on how and when to connect is also made accessible. Web links should provide a description and any further instructions in plain text (as opposed to images, arrows, highlighted text, etc.) to be read by screen-reader software. Include a phone number in the invite as well in the event description for hearing impaired students to access via TRS services.

By taking the time to create accessible web-conferences we not only accommodate the student with a visual or hearing impairment, we make the presentation more usable for all participants.

References:

DOIT Center: Universal design vs. accommodation

Federal Communications Commission: Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS)

W3C: Understanding WCAG 2.0 – Time-based Media

IBM Human Ability & Accessibility Center: Overcoming accessibility challenges of web-conferencing

 

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Closing the gap between online and classroom student outcomes

For the past few years community colleges have shifted their focus from one of access to one of completion. Offering online programming is a great way to provide access to higher education but closing the gap between online and classroom student outcomes is an ongoing challenge.

Student studying at computer

eLearning CC-BY Wolfgang Greller on Flickr

Efforts on bridging the gap have mostly centered around learner characteristics: GPA / SAT scores, whether students have previous experience with online learning, their capacity for self-regulated learning (self-efficacy, time management, organizational skills), etc.. Although these can be helpful indicators in predicting online student achievement, another approach that offers promise focuses on the at-risk course.

Ferris State University has been offering Structured Learning Assistance (SLA) for the past 25 years focusing not on the at-risk student, but on the high-risk for failure course. Although this has not been offered as an online option the impact on student success has consistently meant better than a 10% higher pass rate than of those sections without supplemental instruction. By focusing on courses with a history of high failure and withdrawal rates SLA has been able to support students with an additional 45 hours of supplemental instruction.

A recent study at Borough of Manhattan Community College at CUNY looks at online course-level predictors of learning outcomes (Wladis et al 2015). The study found that there was a significant gap in course completion between online courses taken as electives and those that were required for a given major. Also lower-level courses had a much higher attrition rate than higher-level courses. The study suggests that interventions such as embedded supplemental instructional support (tutoring, mentoring, advising, extra technical assistance) within the more challenging courses could significantly improve – and possibly even eliminate – the performance gap between online and face-to-face outcomes.

A few years ago I attended the Online Learning Consortium (OLC) conference and sat in on a panel presentation describing strategies to keep students enrolled in online learning. The panel was represented by faculty and staff from Penn State World Campus. The strategies included embedding tutors in some of the more challenging online courses. A single embedded tutor might support as many as eight sections of the course.

Tutors meet virtually with students one-on-one or with groups by appointment as many as five to six days a week – including evening and weekend hours. The tutors also scheduled “drop-in sessions” when they would go over some of the more challenging concepts, answer questions, and provide more detail on upcoming course assignments. In addition to the virtual meetings, tutors posted helpful tips on study skills and supplemental web resources. The goal of the initiative was to increase retention by 2% per year over a five year period. However, the results showed a 75% reduction in withdrawal and late drops, and a 15% reduction in course failure rates.

Implementing an online supplemental instruction program sounds like a big undertaking but focusing on the most challenging online courses sounds like a great place to begin.

References:

C. Wladis, K. Conway, A. C. Hachey (2015). Using course-level factors as predictors of online course outcomes: A multilevel analysis at a U.S. urban community college. Studies in Higher Education. Vol 42 (1). Taylor & Francis Online. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03075079.2015.1045478

Antique Video Camera

Students ask for more video with their learning

A few years back we invested in the streaming video service – Films on Demand. The service integrates with our campus portal and the Lakeland Library to permit faculty the means of integrating educational video into their course materials. Compared with the former system of ordering individual media (VHS, DVD), this has proved to be a very good investment. Nevertheless, the level of adoption has been less than expected.

Fims on Demand - Collections

Films on Demand – Collections

In our recent survey of online learners, students reported that they would like to have more video content in their online courses. Streaming video is becoming an extremely popular way for students to view content as is evidenced by the rate of adoption of such services as iTunes U and Khan Academy.

According to a recent article in Inside Higher Ed reporting on thePearson Higher Ed Survey on Student Mobile usage

“Eight in ten (83%) college students regularly use a smartphone, up significantly from 72% in 2013.  Smartphones are now close to laptops (89%) as the mobile device students are most likely to use on a regular basis.”

Perhaps the increased use of smartphones by students helps to explain the demand for more video content. Although I enjoy reading journal articles and other text-based material on my iPad because of the size and orientation, I am not a big fan of reading text on my iPhone. That being said, the iPhone works great with streaming video – especially with WiFi available both at work and home.

iPhone CC-BY-NC-SA by Alex Bartok on Flickr

CC-BY-NC-SA by Alex Bartok on Flickr

Films on Demand is available to both faculty and students and although we have promoted its use primarily with the faculty – demonstrating how to search for relevant content from among the more than 15,000 titles and 200,000 plus segments – students also may access these materials and find value in searching through the collections themselves.

Gamification and Student-to-content Interactivity

Learner engagement is considered to be an effective predictor of student success. We can increase learner engagement by focusing on interactivity in course design.

Playing game with Cards & Chips

Gamification of Life CC-BY VFS Digital Design on Flickr

The Community College Research Center (CCRC) at Teachers College, Columbia University published a paper on the topic: Predicting Online Student Outcomes from a Measure of Course Quality (Jaggars & Xu.) The purpose of the study was to gather empirical evidence regarding the link between online course quality and student outcomes.

The study looked at four main areas:

  • Course design: organization and navigation
  • Learning objectives and assessment
  • Interpersonal interactions (student-to-instructor & student-to-student)
  • Effective use of technology

Much of what was learned through the research reaffirms what we have shared here before – that there exists a positive correlation between student-to-instructor interactivity and student success.

What the study did not reveal was a correlation between student success and online course design, or for that matter, between student success and the alignment of learning objectives and assessment. That isn’t to say these aren’t essential considerations when designing the online course – they are. But rather, that the study did not provide evidence that these factors are directly related to student achievement.

Another interesting finding was that although student-to-instructor interactions showed a positive correlation to student outcomes, this was not necessarily the case with student-to-student interactions. In fact, students indicated their experience with online discussion and group projects was, to paraphrase, pretty much a time sink.

Initially, the findings appeared to support a relationship between the effective use of technology and course grades, but after controlling for student characteristics the relationship became less apparent. Most quality assurance rubrics and accepted practices in online delivery suggest that educational technologies need to be current or state-of-the-art. However, this study suggests when designing rubrics for online course design…

“…quality ratings for technology may wish to focus on not just the use of “current” technologies but how these technologies are used to support user interaction, confidence, motivation, and learning.”

It occurs to me that interaction, confidence, motivation and learning can all be supported by the introduction of games or gamification in learning design.

The use of games in education has gained momentum in recent years. Games can be very motivating (perhaps even addicting). In a game we interact with the medium, often are given problems to solve or challenges to overcome, make choices, and as we progress in skill we become more confident.

Tools like Respondus StudyMate and Quia can be used to turn objective type quizzes into word games: (matching, hangman, crossword, fill in the blank). This is especially helpful when learning new terminology. After integrating games into her Medical Terminology course a couple of years ago an instructor reported significant improvement in student test scores as students began to spend hours reviewing the content as they played games and tried to improve their scores.

The learning is not necessarily the learner’s primary goal when playing a game, but rather accomplishing a task, mastering a certain level, gaining points or credits, and ultimately to win. Of course learning happens as an outcome in the process. Games are by definition, competitive – we may compete against the computer, chance, ourselves, or others (bringing us back to the earlier discussion about student-to-student interactions).

According to Karl Kapp, “Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics, and game thinking to engage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems.”

“Through the careful application of game elements—such as the freedom to fail, interest curve, storytelling, and feedback—in learning programs, ordinary content can be made more engaging without the development of a full-fledged learning game.” – Karl Kapp

By looking for ways to implement game elements into our courses we may be able to repond to the several questions brought up in the study, including student to student interactions, and effective use of technology (student to content interactions).

For more information about gamification, check out Karl’s article Getting Started with Gamification on ASTD.org.

How colleges leverage social media…

Social Media is essentially about connecting and sharing. Some of the most common ways colleges use social media include marketing, recruitment, and keeping in touch with alumni.

rogerg1flickr

CC-BY-NC-SA by roger g1 on Flickr

Our campus has a Facebook page for students to “like” us and to keep up on whats happening on campus. Facebook continues to be the number one social network for all populations and can be leveraged in a variety of ways to help market the college, its programs, and campus events.

Recruitment is an important function of social media. Marquette University offers a virtual tour of their campus to prospective students and their parents using Instagram.

Whether connecting with friends and family through Facebook, networking with coworkers and colleagues through LinkedIn, following someone on Twitter, or sharing your video on YouTube, social media is increasingly becoming part of the average person’s daily life.

Some 42% of online adults now use multiple social networking sites. In addition, Instagram users are nearly as likely as Facebook users to check in to the site on a daily basis.

Pew Internet: Social Media Update 2013

Social media helps us to expand our professional connections as well as to organize and categorize connections into virtual communities. We can join groups, create our own, or invite others join our communities. By creating or joining existing circles, groups, or communities we can build connections with others around common interests and expand our networks far beyond what would otherwise be possible without social media.

By leveraging social media to create a sense of community, we can actually improve persistence and student success. This becomes especially relevant for the increasing percentage of students enrolling in online learning.

Community development is not simply developing a virtual campus or an online resource portal that includes an infinite number of electronic links to student resources and chat rooms. Online administrators must design meaningful opportunities for students to interact with their peers, faculty, adjuncts, and staff in a supportive and inclusive environment.

– K. Betts (2008), Online Human Touch (OHT), JOLT

By leveraging social media to help students better connect to their program of study we foster community both within and outside the classroom. These connections allow students to  be more than observers, but rather participants in the campus community by contributing to the conversation and the culture of the institution, program, and classroom.

CC-BY by Wolfgang Greller of Flickr

When Online Learning Fails

A recent article in the Instructional Technology Council newsletter shared some of the challenges and frustrations from a student’s perspective when online learning fails.

An high school student tells of her experience enrolling in two online courses during her senior year. While seeking greater flexibility in her summer study schedule, she instead finds the whole experience somewhat frustrating.

Integrating Technology and the Academy

CC-BY by Wolfgang Greller of Flickr

CC-BY by Wolfgang Greller of Flickr

Eight important considerations about online learning to consider from the student perspective…

1) Students need to understand the online course requires at least as much time as the face-to-face alternative. Many online courses require logging into a course site and completing assignments and discussion postings on a regular basis – as much as several times per week.

2) Familiarity with required technology is essential. New-to-online or to a given learning management system (e.g. Blackboard, Moodle, Canvas) will require some orientation. Students and instructors both need to be comfortable with the technology in order that they might focus on the learning.

3) Simply migrating course content and quizzes to the learning management system does not an online course make. In order for deeper learning to be effected students need to actively engage with the content and with one another.

4) Assessments must align with both the content and the learning activities. It can be frustrating when questions on an assessment are not related to the material. Try awarding an extra point to the student who finds an error in either the content or the assessment – and then of course, correct the error as soon as possible.

5) The level of faculty-to-student interaction is arguably the most important factor impacting student retention and academic achievement. Frequent and timely feedback, instructor availability via email / chat / texting, and some type of faculty presence, permit students to better connect with the course through their instructor.

6) Student-to-student interaction creates for the learner, a sense of community – not only for the course at-hand, but to the institution as a whole, and can positively impact both retention and persistence.

7) Support services including online tutoring, technical assistance, self-help tutorials, etc. become all the more critical when the learner is disconnected from the classroom by both time and place.

8) Lastly, Ms. Shriver points out that she prefers “learning in the traditional classroom setting”. Keep in mind that flexibility is the primary reason students enroll in online courses.  Despite the obstacles she fully expects to take more online courses in the future.

Those of us who are responsible for delivering online learning need to be cognizant of the challenges students face and look at what we can do to ensure the learning experience is of the highest quality possible.

Definition of Innovate from Merriam Webster: to do something in a new way : to have new ideas about how something can be done

Innovation, Risk-taking, and Unexpected Results

The very nature of innovation requires risk-taking – meaning sometimes we’re likely to get unexpected results.

Coursera, in collaboration with Georgia Institute of Technology, enrolled 41,000 students in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on The Fundamentals of Online Education, that unfortunately had to be shut down this past week due to technical issues before it had a chance to get fully off the ground. –Inside Higher Ed.

Apparently, the concern had to do with the ability to manage small group discussions using Google Docs, but there were problems.

“If we tell people to just do safe things, we’ll stifle innovation.”
– Richard DeMillo, Georgia Tech

I couldn’t agree more.

Innovation means trying things out – oftentimes for the very first time – and that can be risky business.

In our efforts to foster innovation and experimentation we need to recognize that failure is part of the process. We make a  first attempt, when something unexpected occurs we try something else – and then we ask, what was the difference? Did we get what we expected? We try again – did we get the same or new results?

There will be those going forward who will likely not give MOOCs a try, pointing to this attempt that “didn’t work”. But the fact is, it did work. It worked by failing, and now we learn from it asking what happened, and trying something else. Hopefully the next time it will work better.

Technology Fail

Unexpected results are always a risk when we innovate. No guts – no glory!

Its just a bigger deal when 41,000+ people are looking than when you can’t get the damn projector switched from the laptop to the document camera on the first day of class.